Cornell University Program of Computer Graphics
Coping with friction for non-penetrating rigid body simulation.David Baraff.
Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '91 Proceedings), 25(4):31--40, July 1991.
Algorithms and computational complexity measures for simulating the motion of contacting bodies with friction are presented. The bodies are restricted to be perfectly rigid bodies that contact at finitely many points. Contact forces between bodies must satisfy the Coulomb model of friction. A traditional principle of mechanics is that contact forces are impulsive if and only if non-impulsive contact forces are insufficient to maintain the non-penetration constraints between bodies. When friction is allowed, it is known that impulsive contact forces can be necessary even in the absence of collisions between bodies. This paper shows that computing contact forces according to this traditional principle is likely to require exponential time. An analysis of this result reveals that the principle for when impulses can occur is too restrictive, and a natural reformulation of the principle is proposed. Using the reformulated principle, an algorithm with expected polynomial time behavior for computing contact forces is presented.
This paper is available as a PDF file Bar91.pdf (116K).