Cornell Box [JP04]
Cornell University Program of Computer Graphics
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Bd-tree: output-sensitive collision detection for reduced deformable models.

Doug L. James and Dinesh K. Pai.

ACM Trans. Graph., 23(3):393--398, 2004.

We introduce the Bounded Deformation Tree, or BD-Tree, which can perform collision detection with reduced deformable models at costs comparable to collision detection with rigid objects. Reduced deformable models represent complex deformations as linear superpositions of arbitrary displacement fields, and are used in a variety of applications of interactive computer graphics. The BD-Tree is a bounding sphere hierarchy for output-sensitive collision detection with such models. Its bounding spheres can be updated after deformation in any order, and at a cost independent of the geometric complexity of the model; in fact the cost can be as low as one multiplication and addition per tested sphere, and at most linear in the number of reduced deformation coordinates. We show that the BD-Tree is also extremely simple to implement, and performs well in practice for a variety of real-time and complex off-line deformable simulation examples.

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