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Cornell University Program of Computer Graphics
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ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH), 24(3):982--990, August 2005.

Jernej Barbic and Doug L. James. Real-time subspace integration for St. Venant-Kirchhoff deformable models.

In this paper, we present an approach for fast subspace integration of reduced-coordinate nonlinear deformable models that is suitable for interactive applications in computer graphics and haptics. Our approach exploits dimensional model reduction to build reduced-coordinate deformable models for objects with complex geometry.  We exploit the fact that model reduction on large deformation models with linear materials (as commonly used in graphics) result in internal force models that are simply cubic polynomials in reduced coordinates. Coefficients of these polynomials can be precomputed, for efficient runtime evaluation. This allows simulation of nonlinear dynamics using fast implicit Newmark subspace integrators, with subspace integration costs independent of geometric complexity. We present two useful approaches for generating low-dimensional subspace bases: modal derivatives and an interactive sketch. Mass-scaled principal component analysis (mass-PCA) is suggested for dimensionality reduction. Finally, several examples are given from computer animation to illustrate high performance, including force-feedback haptic rendering of a complicated object undergoing large deformations.

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