Cornell University Program of Computer Graphics
Precomputed acoustic transfer: output-sensitive, accurate sound generation for geometrically complex vibration sources.Doug L. James, Jernej Barbic, and Dinesh K. Pai.
ACM Trans. Graph., 25(3):987--995, 2006.
Simulating sounds produced by realistic vibrating objects is challenging because sound radiation involves complex diffraction and interreflection effects that are very perceptible and important. These wave phenomena are well understood, but have been largely ignored in computer graphics due to the high cost and complexity of computing them at audio rates.We describe a new algorithm for real-time synthesis of realistic sound radiation from rigid objects. We start by precomputing the linear vibration modes of an object, and then relate each mode to its sound pressure field, or acoustic transfer function, using standard methods from numerical acoustics. Each transfer function is then approximated to a specified accuracy using low-order multi-pole sources placed near the object. We provide a low-memory, multilevel, randomized algorithm for optimized source placement that is suitable for complex geometries. At runtime, we can simulate new interaction sounds by quickly summing contributions from each mode's equivalent multipole sources. We can efficiently simulate global effects such as interreflection and changes in sound due to listener location. The simulation costs can be dynamically traded-off for sound quality. We present several examples of sound generation from physically based animations.
The accompanying video is available as a avi file JBP06.avi (~67MB).
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